The Multitudinous Seas Incarnadine (Dennis Aubrey)

 Whence is that knocking?

How is’t with me, when every noise appalls me?

What hands are here? Hah! They pluck out mine eyes.

Will all great Neptune’s ocean wash this blood

Clean from my hand? No; this my hand will rather

The multitudinous seas incarnadine,

Making the green one red.

Macbeth Act 2, scene 2, 54–60

Today April 23, this is the annual post for the birthday of William Shakespeare. The quote is from Macbeth, where he finds his guilt at the regicide of Duncan unbearable, the blood from his hands will not wash off but will turn the green sea red. Lady Macbeth herself suffered guilt as well for the crime, sleepwalking and trying to wash imagined bloodstains from her hands.

The Bard, William Shakespeare

Surely the Middle Ages (as close to Shakespeare in his days as the Civil War to ours) was familiar with the concept of guilt. The whole basis of pilgrimage was a journey to a holy site for the expiation of sin. Pilgrimage has always been with us as a journey of moral significance, but it was the advent of medieval Christianity that made remorse for sin a key part of the equation. The greater the sin, the greater the pilgrimage. There were hundreds of local pilgrimages for saints in every region of Christian Europe. A great pilgrimage in France might be made to the Blessed Virgin in Chartres or Rocamadour, Sainte Foy in Conques, Saint Martin in Tours, Mary Magdelene in Vezelay, or Saint Hilaire in Poitiers. A greater pilgrimage might be made to Santiago de Compostela, the resting place of Saint James, or to Rome and the Basilicas of Saints Peter and Paul, the companions of Christ, or the journey to Jerusalem itself, where Jesus walked the earth. Jerusalem was the ultimate pilgrimage, the sign of the ultimate commitment to faith or the greatest sin to be forgiven.

Medieval pilgrimage town of Conques

Foulque Nerra, the Black Count of Anjou and the founder of Angevin power, made four pilgrimages to the Holy Land between 1002-1037. Considering that the trip by land was 2800 miles and by land and sea it was almost 2000 miles, the trip would take several months at least. Foulque had significant sins to repent, including burning his wife alive in her wedding dress after finding her in bed with another man.

The Middle Ages were full of pilgrims and an entire infrastructure was developed to care for them in their travels. Monasteries would host them, hostels would shelter them, hospices would heal their wounds, and orders of religious knights would protect them from predators. In France, the Chemins de Saint Jacques, the four pilgrimage roads leading to Santiago de Compostella, were filled with great pilgrimage churches replete with sacred relics. Thousands would walk these paths from one end of Europe to the other in order to free their souls from the sin, and its attendant guilt, and replace it with a state of grace that might ease their path into heaven. In a world of humanity that believed as fervently as it did, this state of grace was a physical reality, perceptible and tangible.

Pilgrimage site of Rocamadour

We live in a world where science has explained much of what once was a mystery, but at the center of it all, in the heart of darkness, science is at a loss. The genius of religion is that it binds our behavior into the very fabric of the universe. What we do and what we believe matters. We should repent our transgressions, we should feel shame and guilt.

Today’s world says that there is no moral standard, only a legal one. Remorse is not important. What does it matter if our Wall Street barons rob their flocks as brutally and ruthlessly as Foulque Nerra did a thousand years ago? Since the law cannot or will not touch them, won’t they at least walk the paths of pilgrimage in public expiation of their sins? Can’t they mount the 197 stone steps of Rocamadour on their knees, as did Eleanor of Aquitaine, Henry II of England, Blanche of Castille, Louis IX, Charles IV, and Louis XI of France? Are they too proud to prostrate themselves, as mere barons, where Kings and Queens have preceded them? Or do they simply feel no shame or guilt?

If you are interested in seeing more of these images, please see the Via Lucis website.

11 thoughts on “The Multitudinous Seas Incarnadine (Dennis Aubrey)

  1. “We live in a world where science has explained much of what once was a mystery, but at the center of it all, in the heart of darkness, science is at a loss. The genius of religion is that it binds our behavior into the very fabric of the universe.” – Ok, this is one part I do not agree with, if there’s one thing I’ve learned is that religion is not genius parse, but tedious and controlling, and declaring it binds us to the universe is the equivalent of saying we got married cose she got pregnant. Religion was never comforting, never binding through understanding, but through fear, and guilt was a very smart weapon which religion has been profiting for centuries. If one “needs’ redemption, all he must do is look inside himself, and not a pilgrimage place to flock to like sheep to the slaughter house.

    1. Lucianus, am sad to hear that your experience with religion is so negative, but it is not surprising. I am not a religious man myself, but do believe that the principles on which the religious impulse are founded (as opposed to the practice of those principles) are grounded in the most powerful and noble impulses of the human heart. Thanks for writing in with your thoughts.

  2. Great post – thoughtful and dignified. Unfortunately these days repentance is stifled by fear of liability and shame is denied. Society (and the hearts of individuals) are poorer for it!

    1. I have read that there are certain “tribes” of monkeys that have clearly delineated territorial lines and that when an individual from one group trespasses into the territory of the other, behavior indicative of shame is exhibited – furtiveness, embarrassment, and hesitancy. Wouldn’t it be nice if our own species preserved such behaviors?

  3. Dennis, somewhat off-topic but I never get around to asking you – are you fluent in French? I am, having grown up in Geneva. Sometimes I’m tempted to answer you in French, or partially so, because we are dealing with France.

    Best. Elliott

    1. Arnel, so much going on. Am preparing five posts now and we have two guest posts coming. Jong-Soung Kimm is doing another post, this time on a church in Worms. And Salvador Penaloza is doing a post on some beautiful structures in Mexico.

    1. Russel, you are more right than you know, I think. We are great fans of Dom Angelico Surchamp, the éminence grise of the Editions Zodiaque which published over 200 books on Romanesque churches in Europe. Dom Surchamp stated that he started the project in the 1950’s as a way to get out and see the world because, in his words, “monks don’t get to travel very much.”

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