Abbaye Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys (Dennis Aubrey)

The former province of Bretagne is one of the most interesting areas in France. The medieval Duchy was primarily Celtic instead of Germanic, spoke Brythonic Celtic, one of the two branches of the Celtic language, but was deeply allied with the French crown. The Bretons replaced Latin with French as the official language of the region three hundred years before the French themselves did so. Today the maps and the spoken language both are full of strange words, evidence of the clear Celtic origins of the region.

The earlier origins of the region, however, are just as firmly attested as the Celtic. The Morhiban is full of the strange megalithic menhirs and dolmen. Carnac is world-famous, but there are many groupings of these stones. Nobody knows for sure what they represent but their importance is clear. They are found throughout Europe from Ireland to the Urals.

Dolmen, Carnac (Morhiban)  Photo by PJ McKey
Dolmen, Carnac (Morbihan) Photo by PJ McKey

The warlike culture made the name of the Breton warriors something to be feared. They produced du Guesclin and Clisson, two Constables of France during the Hundred Years War. Even in the modern era, the martial spirit runs deep. In World War I, Bretagne lost 240,000 men in the service of the French army – 10% of the total population.

Christianity made an early entrance into the region. One of the first holy men to establish his presence was Saint Gildas from northern Britain. He settled on the island of Rhuys and founded a monastery there in 536. The abbey was built of wood on the site of a Roman oppidum. The monks adopted the rule of Saint Benedict in 818 and in the 11th century the abbey was rebuilt in stone. Nothing remains of this monastery, however because like all other Breton churches of the area, Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys was destroyed by the Norse invaders in the 10th century.

The monastery was rebuilt in stone in the next century, but the monastic discipline was not exemplary. In 1132, Peter Abélard was sent in exile to Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys – he was made abbot at the monastery. It is clear that this was punishment for his theological disputes because Abélard’s time in Bretagne was not pleasant. He described the abbey buildings as decorated with “bear, boar, and bloody trophies of the chase. Monks woke at the sound of the horn and hounds barking. They were cruel and unrestrained in their license.” The recalcitrant monks refused to get rid of their concubines and children and resisted Abélard’s every attempt at reform. He did, however, manage to renovate the church itself. The apse, ambulatory, and transepts are fundamentally in the same configuration now as in his time. Eventually the abbey was ruled by commendatory abbots with predictable results. The decline of the monastery was inevitable and by the nineteenth century, the buildings were in ruins. In 1824 the founder of the Soeurs de la Charité de St Louis, Madame Molé de Champlatreux, purchased the abbey for 55,000 francs. The sisters rebuilt the abbey as we see it today.

The structure features a narrow nave covered with groin vaults. These groin vaults enable clerestory windows to let in a great deal of natural light. The groin vaults are separated by wide transverse bands supported by pilasters attached to the great square pillars.

Nave, Abbaye Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys,  Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys (Morbihan)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey
Nave, Abbaye Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys, Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys (Morbihan) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The side aisles are quite narrow and high, also covered with groin vaults. They were used to funnel pilgrims to the ambulatory chapels without disturbing the religious offices taking place in the main sanctuary.

Side aisle, Abbaye Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys,  Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys (Morbihan)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey
Side aisle, Abbaye Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys, Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys (Morbihan) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The most important relics of the monastery were those of Saint Gildas himself. Gildas died at Rhuys on January 29, 570, and according to his wishes, his body was placed on a boat and allowed to drift. Three months later, on 11 May, men from Rhuys found the ship in a creek with the body of Gildas still intact. They took the body back to Rhuys and buried it there. The importance of these relics in pilgrimage was clear with the ambulatory layout. The apse has a lovely two level hemicycle surrounded by the ambulatory.

Abbaye Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys, Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys (Morbihan)  Photo by PJ McKey
Abbaye Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys, Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys (Morbihan) Photo by PJ McKey

The relics themselves are kept at this altar with Gildas’ statue in an elongated radiating chapel behind the apse. This shot of PJ’s shows the altar with the apse and the nave in the distant background.

Abbaye Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys, Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys (Morbihan)  Photo by PJ McKey
Abbaye Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys, Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys (Morbihan) Photo by PJ McKey

One hundred and eighty years under the supervision of the Soeurs de la Charité de St Louis have done much to rid the monastery of the disgrace of Abélard’s time. Today, the Abbaye Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys is serene and beautiful, one of the finest Romanesque monuments of Brittany.

Location: Click this link to see the location on our custom Google Map.

13 thoughts on “Abbaye Saint Gildas-de-Rhuys (Dennis Aubrey)

  1. Do you have any additional shots of the altar? Are the images on a tapestry that covers the entire altar, or, is it a sculpted piece? Do you know the date of the altar or is it, as it appears, to be more of a contemporary design? What is the image that is on the side of the altar facing the viewer? Thanks.

  2. very comfy’s story alas is not pleasant. wish the top had the stained windows back in and i love the floor…

    1. Karen, it is a stunning altar – the French have a hit and miss record of blending the contemporary with the traditional, but this one worked very well. Thanks!

  3. Ah, wonderful Brittany. Had a magical time sailing around the coast there in late August. Super post Dennis. I was back in France again last week you know, in Languedoc, and was absolutely stupefied by the beautiful, enormous (red brink) old fortress-like Cathedral in Albi. (wrote a little post on it) One of if not the last cathedrals in France, with its Rood Screen still intact as you know (they moved the altar to the west end of the Cathedral rather than destroy it, of course ) Staggering stone work. Don’t think I’ve ever seen anything quite like it before, not even at the Musée Cluny in Paris . Quite stunning. Hope to post on Cathar castles soon, and hope all is well with you & P.J. My warmest regards, as always – Arran.

    1. Arran, replied on your site on the Albi/Languedoc article! So glad you referenced it here. The rood screen is magnificent, isn’t it? Looking forward to your post on the Cathar castles.

  4. Dennis, thank you for mentioning Abelard who is famous in french culture for his tragic love for Heloise, the Gallic equivalent of Romeo and Juliet.

  5. also, twice you spell “Morhiban” the region where I was born which is Morbihan, in the breton celtic language it means “the land of the small sea” mor-bihan (there is indeed a large golfe there practically closed in by gorse flower covered lands)… I correct you since you are usually so error proof…

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.