The Monk in the Morvan Forest (Dennis Aubrey)


We are finally home again after two months photographing in France, Spain, and even a little bit of Italy. We drove 6,960 kilometers during that time at an arrive speed of 51 kilometers an hour, which translates to 4,344 miles and a dazzling 32 miles per hour. This demonstrates the narrowness of the country roads where we drive and the amount of time we spent in the Pyrénées and Alps. Until we hit the highway returning to Paris, the average speed was 48 kilometers per hour!

The trip ended in Vézelay at the Crispol hotel, which is almost like home to us. The Schori family is always so welcoming and the addition of the two children Max and Clémence makes it even brighter. It is always bittersweet leaving France. We love it there but we are always anxious to return home, this time to our new house amidst the Amish in Ohio. But this year was even harder because on our last full day, we went to visit Angelico Surchamp again at the monastery at La Pierre Qui Vire. Surchamp is our inspiration and our master, whose two hundred volumes of work documenting the Romanesque religious architecture of Europe is the bedrock on which we build. We arrived knowing that he resides in the infirmerie these days.

He was brought to the parloir in a wheelchair and we could see how feeble his 94 year-old frame is now, how much thinner. But when he recognized us, he lit up like a child and we had the most wonderful hour visit with him. Continually he would look out the window and smile at the blue sky with the great white clouds and remark at them, as if seeing them for the first time. C’est le don du Seigneur pour cette visite.

Teresa of Avila chapel, Basilique Sainte Madeleine, Vézelay (Yonne) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

He tired easily but I thought he might want to go outside. He immediately agreed – to PJ’s horror. It was quite chilly outside and she was not sure that the nurse would appreciate us absconding with him. Surchamp rose as if to walk but agreed to let us wheel him out. We took the back way through the refectory and down the service elevator and out into the lower courtyard. We only stayed a few minutes because of the cold, but his eyes glowed brighter and he was transfixed by the site of the forest beyond.

When it was time for us to leave, we told him that we would see him next year. I asked if he would like us to take him to Vézelay to see the Basilique Sainte Madeleine, the church that started his great adventure almost seventy years ago, the first that he ever photographed. His eyes opened wide and he said almost rapturously, oh, oui, si Dieu le veut with a smile. And then he added that he would have to ask the abbot. I told him we would write the abbot about the plans and he repeated that he would have to get the permission of the abbot.

Basilique Sainte Madeleine, Vézelay (Yonne) Photo by PJ McKey

And then he said, À mon âge, tout ce que je dois donner c’est ma mort – “At my age, all I have left to give is my death.” I told him that he had more to give than that, just the joy of our visit with him was a greater gift. He took my arm, looked at me with that old, wise look and said Nous sommes séparés par des milliers de kilomètres et un grand océan, mais nos coeurs sont proches.

Basilique Sainte Madeleine, Vezelay (Yonne) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

I think he was saying goodbye. We return to France again next year and I can only hope that we see our master at that time. Until that time, we can rest content that he is at peace in the forests of the Morvan.

PJ with Dom Angelico Surchamp in Le Villars

Anzy-le-Duc – the Great Survivor (Dennis Aubrey)


We have often remarked how astonishing it is that France still holds 5,000 Romanesque churches from the 11th and 12th centuries. They have survived war, accident, nature, religious strife, revolution, and age while standing proudly in the French countryside.

One of these survivors is the priory church in Anzy-le-Duc. The first church on this site was founded in Carolingian times, in 876, as a gift from the noble couple Letbald and Altaric. Their purpose was to establish a monastic institution dedicated to the revived Rule of Saint Benedict. The first prior was Saint Hugues of Poitiers, whose fame brought the priory into great repute. Hugues “died in great veneration” in 930 and was buried in the crypt of the church. His relics attracted many pilgrims throughout the Middle Ages. This influx of pilgrims resulted in the construction of the Prieuré de la Sainte Trinité in the late 11th and early 12th Century.

This great priory church announces its presence from a distance with a stunning octagonal bell tower, one of the finest in Burgundy.

Église Notre-Dame de l’Assomption, Anzy-le-Duc (Saône-et-Loire) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

However, the pious motivations behind the construction of the church have not protected it during the years. In the “calamitious 14th Century” (thank you, Ms. Tuchman) the furies unleashed by the Hundred Years War reached deep into southern Burgundy. In 1368 the troops of the Black Prince attacked and sacked the church.

In 1576, the religious wars that divided France made their mark when the Protestants desecrated the tomb of Saint Hugues and mutilated sculptures of the western portal. In 1594 the Catholics of the League, set the church on fire.

Crypt, Église Notre-Dame de l’Assomption, Anzy-le-Duc (Saône-et-Loire) Photo by PJ McKey

Not to be outdone, nature lent a hand. In 1652 lightning damaged the signature bell tower.

Mankind returned to its destructive ways during the Revolution when great scars were inflicted on the sculptures on the west portal. In 1789, almost out of exhaustion, the priory was dissolved and the church abandoned. About 20 years later, the citizens of Anzy-le-Duc bought the structure and converted it to the parish church, dedicating it to Notre-Dame de l’Assomption.

The church survived, and what remains is quite interesting. The nave is narrow, with three bays and rounded arches. Each bay is separated by a thick rounded diaphragm arch that helps support a groin vault above. The two side aisles are also groin vaulted. This is the same vaulting schema that occurs at the Basilique Sainte Madeleine in Vézelay.

Nave, Église Notre-Dame de l’Assomption, Anzy-le-Duc (Saône-et-Loire) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The chancel crossing features a fine painted dome resting on squinches.

Crossing vault, Église Notre-Dame de l’Assomption, Anzy-le-Duc (Saône-et-Loire) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The west portal’s richly sculpted tympanum has, unfortunately, suffered greatly over the years. As previously mentioned, the Protestants mutilated some of the figures in 1576, but the greatest damage was done during the French Revolution. One of the citizens of Anzy-le-Duc, in his revolutionary fervor, invited his fellows to fire guns at the statuary.

The figures on the lintel, representing the Elders of the Apocalypse, various figures carved onto the archivolt, and the Christ and the angels of the tympanum were all mutilated by gunfire, which was rewarded by “a modest premium of three sous for each head shot.”

West portal, Église Notre-Dame de l’Assomption, Anzy-le-Duc (Saône-et-Loire) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The statuary inside, especially the fine historiated capitals, have survived much more successfully.

Nave capital, Église Notre-Dame de l’Assomption, Anzy-le-Duc (Saône-et-Loire) Photo by PJ McKey

Somehow, the Église Notre-Dame de l’Assomption has withstood the assaults of history and changing currents of religion. It stands today as a monument to the faith of Hugues of Poitiers and the pious Benedictine monks who followed his footsteps.

Altar, Église Notre-Dame de l’Assomption, Anzy-le-Duc (Saône-et-Loire) Photo by PJ McKey

Location: 46.319335° 4.059574°°

✜If you are interested in seeing more of these Romanesque churches, select this link to see a list of those that we have featured in this Via Lucis blog.✜

La Iglesia del Crucifijo, Puente la Reina (Navarra) – A Guest Post by Jong-Soung Kimm


The small town of Puente la Reina is located less than an hour’s drive southwest from Pamplona. It is near the junction where the old French route (Camino Frances) from the historical Roncesvalles of the Chanson de Roland legend, and the Jaca route (Camino Aragones)  merged for the pilgrims headed toward Santiago de Compostela in the Middle Ages. Tradition has it variously  that either Dona Mayor, the queen to King Sancho el Mayor or his daughter Dona Estefania had the five-arched  bridge constructed over the Arga river for the pilgrims in the 11th century.

Bridge over the Arga, Puente la Reina (Navarra) Photo by Jong-Soung Kimm

Hence the name, the Bridge (of) the Queen. At the entry to the town stands the 12th century La Iglesia del Crucifijo (The Church of the Crucifix), which was originally built by the Knights Templar as a single nave church with an apse starting in 1146 during the reign of Alfonso I el Batallador who founded the town on the Arga river bank. The original Church was expanded with a second Nave in the 14th century, also with an Apse, by the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, who took over the Church after the disbandment of the Templars in the early 14th century. The name of the Church derives from a 14th century wooden Crucifix now in the northern Apse of the Church whose origin is shrouded in mystery. During the time of the pilgrimage, sanjuanistas (the Order of St. John) operated lodging and a hospital for the pilgrims.

Chevet, La Iglesia del Crucifijo, Puente la Reina (Navarra) Photo by Jong-Soung Kimm

The covered passage on the south side of the Church, a gateway to the town, also serves as  Narthex to the Church itself. The east elevation of the Church presents an unusual double Apse composition. The bell tower was built mostly in the 14th century, but crowned in the 17th century with apparently Baroque ornamentation.

South Portal, La Iglesia del Crucifijo, Puente la Reina (Navarra) Photo by Jong-Soung Kimm

The South Portal, added during the 14th century expansion, has a slightly pointed arch with three layers of archivolts carved with beading, vegetal scrolls, as well as the human and beast figures, while the corresponding supports are arranged in three columns with capitals and three straight jambs.

12th Century nave, La Iglesia del Crucifijo, Puente la Reina (Navarra) Photo by Jong-Soung Kimm

The Nave has five bays of barrel vaults reinforced by the slightly pointed arches. The Chancel at the Apse has a modest Altar. The light source right at the Apse window basically makes it difficult to see what icon is placed at the center.  (It is made worse by not having been processed for HDR!)

View from the North Nave toward the South Nave, La Iglesia del Crucifijo, Puente la Reina (Navarra) Photo by Jong-Soung Kimm

The builders used octagon-shaped pillars with projecting brackets for springing of the arches, somewhat unusual regional style, not indebted to the classical architecture. At the time of the visit, the South Nave was being readied for a wedding with a red runner down the aisle.

View of the wooden Crucifix, La Iglesia del Crucifijo, Puente la Reina (Navarra) Photo by Jong-Soung Kimm

On the Chancel wall of the North Nave is enshrined the mysterious wooden Crucifix laden with legends, which gave the Church its name. The sculpture is first referred to in a 1325  document, and is thought to be linked to the models of the German Rhineland through its Y that resembles a tree, although scholars also detect an Italian influence in the facial features of the Christ and the disposition of the feet. For our enjoyment of the magnificent Gothic work, a more charming legend comes down to us: a German pilgrim returning from Santiago de Compostela presented the Crucifix which had been in tow during his pilgrimage to the Church in appreciation for the hospitality and care he and his entourage received in Puente la Reina on the way to Santiago.

Detail of the wooden Crucifix, La Iglesia del Crucifijo, Puente la Reina (Navarra) Photo by Jong-Soung Kimm

Only a modest bracket on the curving Apse wall in the  northern Nave of the Church supports the Crucifix. In looking at the stone work for the Apse vaulting, one can almost feel the dedication of the masons in trying to build a true and smooth curvature.

Photographic note: all pictures taken with Leica 28mm PC Super-Angulon on Canon 5D with an adapter.

✜ We are delighted to have another post from Jong-Soung Kimm on our Via Lucis site. For more information on Mr. Kimm, please see this link. ✜

A Home for the Vierge – Dennis Aubrey


A couple of months ago we posted an article about the magnificent vierge romane Notre Dame de Courpière that we photographed last May. What we didn’t know at the time was that this work had only recently returned to her home, having been stolen in 2008. She was found in the possession of a Japanese collector via Belgium and it took three years of legal proceedings to recover her. Returned to France, the statue was sent to the Paris workshops in the Louvre for restoration and was returned to the church of Saint Martin of Courpière in February 2015.

Vierge Romane, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Vierge Romane, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The Église Saint-Martin de Courpière is an interesting structure in its own right. The church is laid out as a modified latin cross with very short transepts. The 11th century nave has three bays and a narthex, and there are side aisles on the north and south sides. The nave is covered with a barrel vault.

Nave, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Nave, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The side aisles are narrow and dark, covered with half-barrel vaults. The individual bays of the aisles are separated by transverse arches. At some time in the past, most likely the 15th or 16th century, the exterior walls of the north side aisle was expanded to accommodate two chapels, clearly seen on the left. In the far distance we can see the apsidal chapel. There is another matching chapel on the south side of the apse as well.

North side aisle, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme)  Photo by PJ McKey

North side aisle, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme) Photo by PJ McKey

Looking across the side aisle we see the nave and, on the south side, another late modification to the church. The Galerie Saint Martin is an upper structure that was built in the 17th century. In this shot we can also see the formidable nave piers with their attached columns, and the fine capitals that proliferate throughout the church.

Nave piers, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme)  Photo by PJ McKey

Nave piers, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme) Photo by PJ McKey

In this nave elevation, we can clearly see the barrel vault springing directly from the nave arcades. Somehow, despite the jumble of elements visible in this shot – the chandeliers, paintings, side chapels, and pulpit – the visual effect of the Église Saint-Martin is pleasing.

Nave, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme)  Photo by PJ McKey

Nave, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme) Photo by PJ McKey

In the shot of the chancel crossing, we can see left and right the very short transept vaults. The transepts give the impression of stubbiness and are unusual for that. Notice again the capitals topping the attached columns that give rise to the squinches supporting the cupola.

Chancel crossing, Nave, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Chancel crossing, Nave, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The finest feature of the church has to be the harmonious apsidal ensemble. Two echeloned side chapels flank the apse itself, which is composed of a short barrel-vaulted choir and a small apse covered with an oven vault. The choir is pierced by a large upper window in the transverse arch, but it is clear that it is not in proper relationship with the vault above and the arch below. I would suspect that the window was most likely a later, rather unfortunate, addition. The apse is pierced by three altogether more pleasing windows. We can also see clearly the 19th century painting that was added, common to many of the regional churches. We don’t know if these were based on existing medieval fragments.

Apse, Nave, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Apse, Nave, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

We should not omit a sample of the capitals that adorn the church. This particular version shows two double-bulls, but there are others featuring Adam and Eve, sirens, atalantes, and acrobats.

Capital, Nave, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Capital, Nave, Église Saint-Martin, Courpière (Puy-de-Dôme) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Much of the Église Saint Martin is in an état vétuste, a dilapidated state, and subscriptions are underway for restoration. For those who are interested, here is a French television clip about the Vierge de Courpière and her return home.

Location: 45.754634 3.538881

In the Shadow of Le Puy (Dennis Aubrey)


The medieval fortress town of Polignac sits on a marvelous defensive site just five miles to the northwest of Le Puy-en-Velay. Polignac is home to one of the great noble families of France, and from the volcanic bluff that held their castle, they controlled the roads located to the north and west of Le Puy. This control was used for a profitable purpose – the viscounts of Polignac levied tolls on the streams of pilgrims that passed to and from Le Puy on the pilgrimage route to Santiago Compostella.

Chateau de Polignac

Chateau de Polignac

Crest of Polignac family

Crest of Polignac family

For two centuries, the viscounts of Polignac contended against the bishops of Le Puy – who also happened to be the Counts of Auvergne, allied with the French King – over these levies. They fought pitched battles against each other throughout the 11th and 12th centuries, and in 1073 when the see of Le Puy was vacant, Stephen Taillefer “The Ravager”, viscount of Polignac and Bishop of Clermont, installed himself as Bishop of Le Puy. It took a pope to sort out that mess and King Louis VII of France to adjudicate the issue of the tolls. This haughty and ruthless family was one of the most reviled in France at the time of the Revolution and their history shows why. Looking at their donjon on the bluff gives us a good idea why they felt invincible.

Today the town is still dominated by the fortress above, but in the town itself is a lovely Romanesque church. The church is a simple rectangle with no protruding transepts. There are five bays to the nave with side aisles leading to echeloned chapels on either side of the simple apse. The church is built with a dark volcanic stone. The apse was built in the 10th and 11th centuries and the nave in the 12th century, although the upper portions were rebuilt in the 17th.

Nave, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Nave, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The nave elevation reveals a barrel vault springing directly from the nave arcades with no clerestory windows. The round arcade arches are supported by heavy piers.

Nave elevation, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire)  Photo by PJ McKey

Nave elevation, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire) Photo by PJ McKey

The side aisles are narrow and covered with groin vaults. We can see the fine capitals topping the arcade pillars, which are carved from a softer white rock from Blavozy about ten miles to the east. There is an active market for the local stone in Blavozy even today. The capitals depict a mixture of acanthus leaves, animals and human heads.

North side aisle, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire)  Photo by PJ McKey

North side aisle, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire) Photo by PJ McKey

At the end of each side aisle is an echeloned chapel flanking the apse. The chapel of Saint Anne on the north contains an interesting statue, a 14th century polychrome work known as the “Trinitarian” Saint Anne with Anne, Mary, and the child Jesus. In this shot of the south side aisle we can see some fine 15th century frescoes depicting the Nativity and the Annunciation.

Echeloned chapel, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire)  Photo by PJ McKey

Echeloned chapel, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire) Photo by PJ McKey

The octagonal chancel crossing supports a squat clocher with a short spire. The dome rests on squinches.

Chancel crossing, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Chancel crossing, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The apse is the oldest part of the church, with construction beginning in the late 10th century. In the apsidal chapel on the right (south) side, we can see the 15th century frescoes.

Apse, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Apse, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

A highlight of the apse is the oven vault with its fine 12th century frescoes depicting the Last Judgment. On the south wall (right) we see Heaven and the angels on the south side and on the north, Hell with demons carrying the bodies of the damned.

Oven vault, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Oven vault, Église Saint Martin, Polignac (Haute-Loire) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The first time I ever saw Polignac was on the road leaving Le Puy and heading to the west for a visit to the Dordogne. Stunned by the sight of the powerful fortifications on top of the bluff overlooking the valley below, I was surprised that I had never even heard of the town. Research corrected that state of ignorance but it was not until PJ and I stayed three days in the town last Spring that we explored both the town and the Église Saint Martin de Polignac.

Location: 45.071137 3.860240

Civaux (Dennis Aubrey)


As a boy, my family lived in the town of Chauvigny when my father was stationed in Poitiers. The glorious year that we lived there lives brightly in my memory. My brother David and I used to take long bicycle rides throughout the countryside and I remember visiting a small town called Civaux on one of those peregrinations. I was re-introduced to Civaux in 1985 during a visit to our life-long friends Jean and Thérèse Gayet who lived in Vivonne, just south of Poitiers. The Gayet’s home is in what had been the family business, a linen factory on the Clain River. The house has its own lieu-dit, Danlot, and to get to the house one must cross an iron bridge built by Gustav Eiffel.

Jean always planned trips to the lesser known historical sites to satisfy my thirst for French history, places like Lussac-les-Chateaux, Angles-sur-Anglin, Charroux, and so many others. At Civaux I was introduced to my first Merovingian necropolis, a collection of thousands of stone burial caskets in a cemetery. Jean also took me by a small church whose apse he pointed out was also dated the same era, approximately the sixth century.

Merovingian necropolis in Civaux (Photo Tourisme-Vienne.com)

Merovingian necropolis in Civaux (Photo Tourisme-Vienne.com)

Last June, PJ and I returned to Civaux, which is just south of Chauvigny on the Vienne River. Chauvigny is one of our favorite towns and features two wonderful Romanesque churches, but this was the first time we had made the short journey to Civaux together. Everything was pretty much the same as it had been decades earlier with the exception of a large nuclear plant just a couple of miles away, a reminder of the inevitability of progress.

The interior of the Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais is quite interesting. There is a narrow nave with four bays, the westernmost of which is topped with a choir loft. There are two side aisles about the same width as the nave itself but no transepts. A chancel arch leads to the 6th century apse in the east. In the plan we see the extreme inclination of the apse to the south. This caused PJ immense difficulty in properly aligning some of her shots.

Ground plan, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne)

Ground plan, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne)

The exterior walls of the nave were built in the 11th century and the interior structures in the 12th. The nave was vaulted in the same 12th century reconstruction, although it was probably originally framed in wood. The spectacular capitals are probably concurrent with this construction phase. PJ’s photo of the nave from the loft gives an excellent perspective of the church as a whole.

Nave, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

Nave, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

Each bay of the side aisle was covered with a groin vault about the same time as the nave was vaulted. The groin vaulting makes it possible for sizable windows to light the interior. Notice that the side aisles are almost as tall as the central nave.

Nave, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Nave, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The heptagonal apse is the oldest part of the church and dates from the Merovingian period but the Eternalis and Servilla vivatis in Deo inscription is evidence of Civaux being one of the oldest Christian centers in the Poitou. I haven’t been able to discover what the apse was originally, but I suspect it was a baptistère, or a baptistery.

Apse, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Apse, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Above the central window of the chevet there is a very interesting feature, a funerary stela that reads Eternalis and Servilla vivatis in Deo, and which has been dated on the evidence of the language to the 4th century. This tablet gives testament to a Christian presence from the Age of Constantine.

Stèle d'Aeternalis et de Servilla, H. Crouzat / musée archéologique de Civaux

Stèle d’Aeternalis et de Servilla, H. Crouzat / musée archéologique de Civaux

The 12th century capitals in Civaux are strikingly similar to those at Chauvigny, which are known to have been created by the famed “Gofridus”. It was this sculptor who signed one of the capitals at the Collégiale Saint Pierre with the words Gofridus me fecit. This photograph of the nave pillars from the loft shows the positions and relationships of the various capitals.

Nave pillars from loft, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

Nave pillars from loft, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

The Dragon capital is one of the most striking and is very similar to some of the capitals in Chauvigny. The wonderful decoration of the winged dragon seems to undercut the violence of the tearing of the human figure in its maw.

Dragon capital, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Dragon capital, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

That savagery is underscored in a different angle on the capital. Even without the brutal paint of the teeth, we sense the imminent rending of the flesh of the human victim.

Devouring dragon, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Devouring dragon, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Saint Gervais et Saint Protais ended up being one of our favorite churches from the 2015 trip to France. We had experienced a wonderful day earlier – photographing at both the Collégiale Saint Pierre and the Église Notre Dame in Chauvigny. We had a lunch in a café on the main square of town and I reminisced ad nauseam, I am sure, about my childhood in town. In the late afternoon we drove south on D749 past the Carolingian church of Saint-Pierre-les-Églises (photographed in 2007), and then crossed the Vienne to Civaux. After three hours in Civaux, we felt that we had done a good days work – hundreds of photos of three fine churches.

View of nave from apse, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

View of nave from apse, Église Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, Civaux (Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

It took a great deal of effort to get the shots that we wanted from such a small church as Saint Gervais et Saint Protais, packed as it was with interesting sculptural and architectural features. As we were preparing to leave, I noticed PJ standing in the doorway of the church, her back covered with dust from leaning against the walls of the church. I had to take the picture.

PJ after work

PJ after work

On a final note, during the visit to Civaux with Jean and Thérèse, I decided to scandalize them by laying in one of the burial caskets in the necropolis. I remember Jean seeing me and staring down at me. His words, later repeated many times, were simple. “Stupid boy.” On one of our last visits with Jean before he died, we sat outside talking in the shade of the trees at Danlot. While everyone was talking, he saw that I was taking a picture of him. He gave me that same look with the unspoken words, “Stupid boy.”

Jean Gayet, Danlot (Vienne) 2005

Jean Gayet, Danlot (Vienne) 2005

Location: 46.444654° 0.664475°

A Patron for Prisoners – Saint Léonard of Noblat (Dennis Aubrey)


He has liberated those sitting in darkness and shadow of death and chained in beggary and irons,
Then they cried to the Lord in their trouble, and he saved them out of their distresses,
He brought them out of the path of iniquity,
For he hath broken the gates of brass, and cut the bars of iron in sunder,
He hath liberated those in bindings and many nobles in iron manacles.

Song of Saint Leonard, quoted by Aymeri Picaud, translated by Richard Hogarth

Aymeri Picaud’s famous Codex Calixtinus was a guide for pilgrims setting out on the Way of Saint James, filled with advice and background information on the great medieval pilgrimage path. The opening quote refers to the famous Saint Léonard of the town of Noblat in the Limousin, who was famed as the patron of the imprisoned. The story is told that Léonard was a 5th century devout who lived in the town of Nobiliac and that he wished to emulate the sanctity of Saint Remi, who was granted the right to release all prisoners when the king came to Reims. Clovis granted the request, that he would release every captive that Léonard visited. Soon, the miracles started accumulating; any prisoner, invoking his name, was freed from his chains and went free with nobody daring to oppose the release. The prisoner was required to go to Nobiliac and present the chains to his patron and many of them remained with him as fellow devouts.

Nave, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Nave, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

By the time Picaud’s Codex was written in the 12th century, Léonard’s fame was almost universal. Picaud wrote,

“Now, divine mercy has spread the fame of St Léonard the Confessor of Limousin throughout the length and breath of the world; of how his powerful goodness led countless thousands of captives from prison. Their savage iron chains, more than one can describe, join together in their thousands, around and around his cathedral, to the right and the left, inside and outside, hanging testimony to all his miracles.

Often Christians were passed in chains into the hands of the pagans, like Bohemond, and were enslaved by those who hated them, and their enemies demanded payment, and humiliated them, but this man often liberated them. And he led them from the darkness and the shadow of death, and shattered their chains. He said to those in fetters, ‘Go forth to be revealed to those in darkness’.”

Transept, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne)  Photo by PJ McKey

Transept, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

The shrine of such a famous saint deserved a great church and the college of canons responded with the magnificent structure we see today. Primarily constructed in the late 11th century, the Collégiale was laid out in the form of a Latin cross. It features four massive barrel-vaulted bays in the nave with thick exterior walls. There are partial side aisles in the easternmost bays leading to the transept, created to funnel pilgrims coming from the western entrance into the large ambulatory.

Side aisle, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Side aisle, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

In the nave elevation we can see the formidable transept piers in the foreground, the side aisle receding to the west, and the tall arcade arches leading directly to the vault. There is no clerestory level in this early church – the only interior lighting comes from the side aisle windows. One of the most interesting features is the uneven width of the nave spans.

Nave elevation, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne)  Photo by PJ McKey

Nave elevation, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

The transept piers are unusually wide and narrow but very elegantly formed. We can see here how well they carry the springing for the cupola dome in the crossing. I think that one of the reasons for the width of the transepts is that they also carry the arches that support domes over the transepts as well as the crossing dome.

Transept piers, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne)  Photo by PJ McKey

Transept piers, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

The dome under the giant clocher over the crossing is supported by pendentives carried by these large piers. This dome is contemporary with the First Crusade and contains eight windows in the drum to illuminate the interior space below.

Crossing dome, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Crossing dome, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The choir and apse are later additions to the church, probably mid-12th century. The apse is covered with an oven vault and contains three windows for illumination. There was a partial collapse of the choir in the 16th century that necessitated some brutal buttressing of the exterior. This collapse also resulted in some of the hemicycle columns being subsumed by ungainly piers.

Apse, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Apse, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The apse features a large ambulatory with seven radiating chapels. It was most certainly constructed because of the demands of the popular pilgrimage. In this shot we can also see the square pier that replaced a hemicycle column in the 16th century reconstruction of the choir.

Ambulatory, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne)  Photo by PJ McKey

Ambulatory, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

In the exterior view of the chevet, we see clearly the arrangements of the radiating chapels and can appreciate the magnificent staged clocher built by the community of canons responsible for the shrine. This tower is seven stories with the stone spire rising to a height of 52 meters. We can also see the unsightly choir buttressing that was added in the 16th century.

Chevet and tower, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Chevet and tower, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

In the 13th century, the western portal was constructed and this was where many ex votos were displayed, the chains and irons from prisoners who had been liberated through the intercession of Saint Léonard. Again we have the testimony of Picaud; “It is beyond saying, how you would marvel if you could see the wooden racks weighed down with so many and such great barbarous irons. For hanging there are metal handcuffs, neck yokes, chains, shackles, fetters, crowbars, yokes, helmets, sickles, and so on, from which the most powerful Confessor of Christ has liberated his captives through his powerful goodness.”

Western portal, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne)  Photo by Dennis Aubrey

Western portal, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by Dennis Aubrey

The fame of the shrine of Saint Léonard the Confessor is demonstrated by the open narthex on the north side of the church. The narthex served as a place of shelter for large numbers of pilgrims waiting to enter the church and venerate the relics. As can be seen in the groundplan, the narthex abutted an interesting circular chapel.

Plan, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne)

Plan, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne)

The narthex opens directly onto both the church and the rotunda chapel, seen in the distance in this shot. The large engaged columns that support the groin vault are topped with rough granite capitals including some interesting tableaux of contending animals and warriors.

Narthex, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

Narthex, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

The rotunda building now known now as the baptistery has been used for this purpose since the major restorations performed in the the 1880’s. But this was originally known as the Chapel of the Sepulchre and features a central altar surrounded by an ambulatory with four chapels. I have read that this chapel was built in honor of the many Crusaders who invoked the aid of Saint Léonard during their captivity. The most famous of these was Bohemond I of Antioch. He was taken captive by the commander of the Turks, Kumushtakin, after an ambush on the way to relieve the siege of Malatia. In 1103, Bohemond made his way to Saint Léonard de Noblat to make his offering to the saint who effected his release. It is said that he gifted the church with silver fetters as a remembrance.

Chapel of the Sepulchre, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

Chapel of the Sepulchre, Collégiale de Saint-Léonard de Noblat, Saint-Léonard de Noblat (Haute-Vienne) Photo by PJ McKey

Picaud’s description of “Noblat” also includes a violent diatribe against the church in Corbigny in the Nièvre near the town of Clamency. Corbigny was one of the first stops on the Via Lemovicensis from Vézelay. The church there, it seems, claimed to shelter the relics of Saint Leonard which Picaud described as being “immovable” from Noblat and went on to excoriate the deception.

“First they made St Leonard of Limousin the patron of their basilica, then they put another man in his place, like jealous slaves who take their master’s inheritance by force and grant it shamefully to his enemy. They’re like a wicked father who snatches his daughter from her legitimate bridegroom and gives her to another. They have changed his glory, says the psalmist, to the similitude of an ox. A wise man rebukes such behaviour, saying, ‘Give not your honour away to strangers‘.”

Picaud’s words had some effect, I imagine, since Corbigny has passed into history while Saint Leonard-de-Noblat is celebrated even today on the pilgrimage to Santiago Compostella.

Location: 45.837104° 1.489751°